by Cheryl Wheeler from her album Sylvia Hotel.
Throughout the south there are schools, universities and professional theatres with electrical equipment that has been submerged in flood waters from Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. They’re biggest question is, “What can I dry out and use, and what do I have to replace?” NEMA (the National Electrical Manufacturers Association) has a guide for this (NEMA GD 1-2016 Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment) that you can download here.
Some larger pieces of equipment can be reconditioned, but that doesn’t mean simply drying them out. It includes using appropriate cleaning agents, and the success of reconditioning depends on the “nature of the electrical function, the degree of flooding, the age of the equipment, and the length of time the equipment was exposed to water.” The problem is that equipment submerged during a flood isn’t just wet, it’s now contaminated with whatever was in the water.
What does that mean for a theatre? Here are some key items that should be replaced.
- Fuses, switches, circuit breakers
- Components containing semiconductors and transistors. That means lighting and sound control consoles, dimmer rack control and power modules, and all LED fixtures.
- Transformers. If the transformer feeding your dimmer racks was submerged, it has to be replaced.
- Outlets and switches
- Wiring in conduit
- Stage cables
- Uninterruptible power supplies
- Communications systems
What might be successfully reconditioned? Not much.
- Conduit and tubing, if it can be completely dried out
- Motors. Consult the manufacturers of your stage and pit lifts.
Yes, it’s a lot. But, it’s better to replace damaged equipment than to risk failure, or worse, of equipment with hidden damage.
Here’s the plug for Studio T+L: Give us a call. We can help you to determine what needs to be replaced, write a specification for the replacement equipment, bid the replacement, and check up on the contractors as they’re doing the work. And, we’re nice!
In 2008 we began a four year collaboration with the wonderful people at The Levoy Theatre in Millville, NJ and R2Architects. In September, The Levoy will have been open for five years and they’ve sent us some statistics on their success.
Earlier this year we started working with New York’s Target Margin Theater on converting a two story warehouse into a new studio theatre, rehearsal spaces, and office space. Two acoustically isolated rehearsal rooms were built at the beginning of the summer. When bids for the resilient stage floor were twice as high as expected the team decided that TMT could build it themselves.
TMT hired a technical director to oversee a crew of volunteers installing the resilient floor we designed and building portable seating risers. The project required:
- 50+ volunteers over 5 days
- 125+ sheets of plywood
- 50+ sheets of masonite
- 2,000 rubber pads
- 75+ 2x4s
- 15 gallons of black paint
- 3 gallons of wood glue
Target Margin now has a great floor and a set of risers. Here’s a gallery of photos showing the progress.
Next steps will include a disconnect for stage dimmers, a pipe grid, and a new mechanical system.
Kevin Willmorth has a long and interesting article on his blog in which he argues for the recognition of professional lighting designers, and what a professional lighting designer is and is not. The post echoes Chapter 1 of Designing With Light, and many of the things I’ve written in the book’s blog, including promoting the lighting design profession, the value of professional lighting design, the need for projects to use a professional lighting designer (here, here and here), and those other than professional lighting designers making design decisions, among other topics. I don’t have much to add to Kevin’s post, except to say that it’s well worth reading.
Most of the arguments I’ve made about architectural lighting design apply equally to professional theatre consultants at all levels. At the professional theatre level (commercial theatre, regional theatre, or opera house, for example) no client or architect would begin a project without a professional theatre consultant on the team. However, the farther one gets from these projects, such as community or school theatres, the more likely we are to find owners and/or architects who think they an save money by not engaging a theatre consultant, or an architect who uses sales reps and manufacturers in lieu of a professional theatre consultant. We’ve seen this manifest itself in several ways, all of which are short sighted for a number of reasons, as we’ve outlined here. The most common arguments are below.
The TD, production designer, or other in-house person can do it
“Theatre consultants won’t listen to us, so we’ll do it ourselves.” I’ve heard this argument many times, and some theatre consultants may have a tendency to think that they know best. There is also a very strong ethic of self-reliance in the theatre. In many, many cases what the design and production team dream up has to be built from scratch, so there’s a great deal of knowledge and a can-do attitude in most theatre organizations. It’s easy to see how that self-reliance would be applied to a theatre construction or renovation project. However, there are two reasons to avoid that path.
The first reason is simple scheduling. A theatre’s staff already has a job designing and producing the season, and designing or renovating a theatre is a full time job. Studio T+L values the input and collaboration of a theatre’s staff, in fact they are essential to a successful project, but the staff needs to focus on productions while we focus on the theatre building.
The second reason is that most people in the theatre don’t have a thorough understanding of architecture, mechanical systems, construction techniques, etc., any more than architects and engineers have a clear understanding of theatre production and operations. Theatre systems must be integrated into the larger building, which requires detailed knowledge in order to effectively communicate and collaborate with the building design team. The alternative is likely to be miscommunication, lost time, and wasted money.
The architect can do it
“The architect has photos of theatres they’ve designed in their portfolio, and they say they can do it.” Theatres are highly specialized buildings, second only to hospitals and laboratories in their complexity, and must meet the unique requirements of the theatre companies or artists that use them. Architects are experts in overall building design and the key contact between owner and design team. However, architects don’t design every building element themselves. They hire a team of specialists that includes engineers, interior designers, landscape designers, and others. The space planning and production systems design of a performing arts venue are best met by knowledgable specialists such as theatre consultants.
This hold true even for smaller projects. In our opinion, there’s no such thing as “just” a community, school, or black box theatre. Theatre as a process, “making theatre”, happens within an understood framework, but the specifics vary widely. A theatre building that is organized along generic or outdated principles will work against the production and the production process. People who have no experience making theatre don’t understand the difference.
My local vendor can do it
As with a technical director, a local equipment supplier has another job. He or she also has other priorities. An equipment supplier has a financial interest in selling certain manufacturers or products. A professional theatre consultant has no such conflicts of interest, and focuses on selecting the right system for each project. In addition, a supplier may be able to assist with a one-for-one exchange of old equipment for new, but is certainly not able to invest the time and effort needed throughout the design and construction process.
But the fees
Yes, theatre consultants insist on being paid for their work. However, consider the cost of not having a professional theatre consultant. The theatre will be in use, as designed, for decades. How much is lost if the space planning interferes with backstage operations or the production process instead of supporting them? What is the cost of production systems that are too complicated, or insufficient for the production’s complexities? Whose audience will return again and again if there are poor sightlines or badly arranged audience amenities?
So, call us. If you don’t call us, call someone. But don’t embark on a theatre design or renovation without the expertise needed to do it properly and see it through to completion.
ESTA and USITT announce the New World Rigging Symposium, on March 13-14, 2018 in conjunction with the USITT Conference and Stage Expo 2018 in Ft. Lauderdale, FL. The Symposium will provide an opportunity for riggers and those interested in the live entertainment rigging industry to network, discuss current issues and new technologies, and help shape the future of the industry.
Sessions will give participants opportunities to further their technical knowledge, keep up to date with codes and standards, and learn what it’s like to work as a rigger in other segments of the entertainment industry. Attendees will also hear from experts in related fields such as structural engineering and risk management. The Symposium will carry ETCP education renewal credits for re-certification.
Symposium attendees will receive free show floor passes to the USITT Stage Expo opening on March 15th as well as a discount on the conference registration.
You can email email@example.com to be notified when registration opens.
ANSI/IES RP-16 Nomenclature and Definitions for Illuminating Engineering has long been one of the two major documents defining terms related to lighting design (the other is CIE ILV: International Lighting Vocabulary). RP-16-10 (the 2010 version of the Recommended Practice) is now available online as a searchable database. From the first page you can click on terms to see the definition and you can also search by keyword. If you don’t already own RP-16 bookmark this now!
Last year the AMA issued Policy H-135.927 Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Community Lighting, which recommended, among other things, that LED outdoor lighting should have a CCT of 3000 K or below. The AMA made this recommendation thinking that lower correlated color temperatures contain less blue light, which can disrupt circadian rhythms.
Today the IES issued a Position Statement disputing that recommendation, noting that CCT
is inadequate for the purpose of evaluating possible health outcomes; and that the recommendations target only one component of light exposure (spectral composition) of what are well known and established multi-variable inputs to light dosing that affect sleep disruption, including the quantity of light at the retina of the eye and the duration of exposure to that light. A more widely accepted input to the circadian system associated with higher risk for sleep disruption and associated health concerns is increased melanopic content, which is significantly different than CCT. LED light sources can vary widely in their melanopic content for any given CCT; 3000 K LED light sources could have higher relative melanopic content than 2800 K incandescent lighting or 4000 K LED light sources, for example.
Follow the link to read the entire Position Statement. Blue light hazard, light’s impact on circadian rhythms and overall health, and related topics are a hot area of research. We’re learning more all the time, but we don’t yet know enough to apply circadian lighting to every situation. Outdoor and street lighting are among the areas where research is not yet conclusive.
Like other lighting technologies, the color or chromaticity of light emitted by an LED can shift over time. To address the challenge of developing accurate lifetime claims, DOE, together with the Next Generation Lighting Industry Alliance, formed an industry working group, the LED Systems Reliability Consortium (LSRC). A new LSRC report, LED Luminaire Reliability: Impact of Color Shift, focuses on chromaticity. The purpose of the new report is not to define limits for specific applications, but rather to enable a better understanding of how and why color shifts, and how that impacts reliability. Download it and take a look.
This photo is from this morning’s rehearsal of the Tony Awards at Radio City Music Hall. The show airs tonight on CBS and is hosted by Kevin Spacey. Our own Ed McCarthy is the lighting director. It’s going to be a fun show. Watch it!